Advertisement

Increased Iron Content of Some Indian Foods Due to Cookware

  • USHA K. KOLLIPARA
    Affiliations
    Usha K. Kollipara MS is a graduate assistant, Helen C. Brittin PhD RD is a professor in food and nutrition in the College of Human Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Tex, USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • HELEN C. BRITTIN
    Correspondence
    Address Corresponding Helen C. Brittin, PhD, RD, College of Human Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409.
    Affiliations
    Usha K. Kollipara MS is a graduate assistant, Helen C. Brittin PhD RD is a professor in food and nutrition in the College of Human Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Tex, USA
    Search for articles by this author
      Iron deficiency is widespread throughout the world (
      • Scrimshaw N.S.
      Iron deficiency.
      ), including the United States (
      • Anderson R.A.
      • Bryden N.A.
      • Polansky M.M.
      Dietary intake of calcium, chromium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, and zinc duplicate plate values corrected using derived nutrient intake.
      ,
      • Wiecha J.L.
      • Dwyer J.T.
      • Jacques P.F.
      • Wand W.M.
      Nutritional and economic advantages for homeless families in shelters providing kitchen facilities and food.
      ,
      • Zive M.M.
      • Tara H.L.
      • Broyles S.L.
      • Frank-Spohrer G.C.
      • Nader P.R.
      Vitamin and mineral intakes of Anglo-American and Mexican-American preschoolers.
      ,
      • Dollahite J.
      • Franklin D.
      • McNew R.
      Problems encountered in meeting the Recommended Dietary Allowances for menus designed according to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans.
      ), India (
      • Venkatachalam P.S.
      Iron metabolism and iron deficiency in India.
      ), and in Indians living in Western countries (
      • Bindra G.S.
      • Gibson R.S.
      Iron status of predominantly lacto-ovo vegetarian East Indian immigrants to Canada a model approach.
      ,
      • MacPhail A.P.
      • Bothwell T.H.
      • Torrance J.D.
      Iron nutrition in Indian women at different ages.
      ). It is caused mainly by inadequate intake and poor availability of iron in food (
      • Cook J.D.
      Absorption of food iron.
      ). Prevention is important because iron deficiency can irreversibly damage brain function and impair the immune system (
      • Scrimshaw N.S.
      Iron deficiency.
      ). Research has raised concern about high iron stores relative to heart attacks (
      • Salonen J.T.
      • Nyyssonen K.
      • Korpela H.
      • Taomilehto J.
      • Seppanen R.
      • Salonen R.
      High stored iron levels are associated with excess risk of myocardial infarction in Eastern Finnish men.
      ) and colon cancer (
      • Nelson R.L.
      • Davis F.G.
      • Sutter E.
      • Sobin L.H.
      • Kikendall J.W.
      • Bowen P.
      Body iron stores and risk of colonic neoplasia.
      ), although one study found an inverse association of iron stores with overall mortality and mortality from cardiovascular causes (
      • Sempos C.T.
      • Looker A.C.
      • Gillum R.F.
      • Makuc D.M.
      Body iron stores and the risk of coronary heart disease.
      ). Measuring iron status is recommended because an estimated 6% of Americans have negative iron balance and 1% have iron overload (
      • Herbert V.
      Everyone should be tested for iron disorders.
      ).
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      References

        • Scrimshaw N.S.
        Iron deficiency.
        Sci Am. 1991; 265: 46-52
        • Anderson R.A.
        • Bryden N.A.
        • Polansky M.M.
        Dietary intake of calcium, chromium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, and zinc.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 1993; 93: 462-464
        • Wiecha J.L.
        • Dwyer J.T.
        • Jacques P.F.
        • Wand W.M.
        Nutritional and economic advantages for homeless families in shelters providing kitchen facilities and food.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 1993; 93: 777-783
        • Zive M.M.
        • Tara H.L.
        • Broyles S.L.
        • Frank-Spohrer G.C.
        • Nader P.R.
        Vitamin and mineral intakes of Anglo-American and Mexican-American preschoolers.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 1995; 95: 341-347
        • Dollahite J.
        • Franklin D.
        • McNew R.
        Problems encountered in meeting the Recommended Dietary Allowances for menus designed according to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 1995; 95: 341-347
        • Venkatachalam P.S.
        Iron metabolism and iron deficiency in India.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 1968; 21: 1156-1161
        • Bindra G.S.
        • Gibson R.S.
        Iron status of predominantly lacto-ovo vegetarian East Indian immigrants to Canada.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 1986; 44: 643-652
        • MacPhail A.P.
        • Bothwell T.H.
        • Torrance J.D.
        Iron nutrition in Indian women at different ages.
        Safr Med J. 1981; 59: 939-942
        • Cook J.D.
        Absorption of food iron.
        Fed Proc. 1977; 36: 2028-2032
        • Salonen J.T.
        • Nyyssonen K.
        • Korpela H.
        • Taomilehto J.
        • Seppanen R.
        • Salonen R.
        High stored iron levels are associated with excess risk of myocardial infarction in Eastern Finnish men.
        Circulation. 1992; 86: 803-811
        • Nelson R.L.
        • Davis F.G.
        • Sutter E.
        • Sobin L.H.
        • Kikendall J.W.
        • Bowen P.
        Body iron stores and risk of colonic neoplasia.
        J Natl Cancer lust. 1994; 86: 455-460
        • Sempos C.T.
        • Looker A.C.
        • Gillum R.F.
        • Makuc D.M.
        Body iron stores and the risk of coronary heart disease.
        N Engl J Med. 1994; 330: 1119-1124
        • Herbert V.
        Everyone should be tested for iron disorders.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 1992; 92: 1502-1509
        • Monsen E.R.
        • Balintfy J.L.
        Calculating dietary iron availability.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 1982; 80: 307-311
        • Monsen E.R.
        • Hallberg L.
        • Layrisse M.
        • Hegsted D.M.
        • Cook J.D.
        • Mertz W.
        • Finch C.A.
        Estimation of available dietary iron.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 1978; 31: 134-141
        • Brittin H.C.
        • Nossaman C.E.
        Iron content of food cooked in iron utensils.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 1986; 86: 897-901
        • Zhou Y.D.
        • Brittin H.C.
        Increased iron content of some Chinese foods due to cooking in steel woks.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 1994; 94: 1153-1156
        • Martinez F.E.
        • Vannucchi H.
        Bioavailability of iron added to the diet by cooking food in an iron pot.
        Nutr Res. 1986; 6: 421-428
        • Mistry A.N.
        • Brittin H.C.
        • Stoecker B.S.
        Availability of iron from food cooked in an iron utensil determined by an in vitro method.
        J Food Sci. 1988; 53: 1546-1548,1573
        • Cheng Y.J.
        • Brittin H.C.
        Iron in food.
        J Food Sci. 1991; 56: 584-585
      1. Statistical Yearbook of the Immigration and Naturalization Service 1991. US Government Printing Office, Washington DC1992
        • Rau S.R.
        The Cooking of India. Time-Life Books, New York, NY1969
      2. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC1990
      3. SAS User's Guide: Statistics, version 6. Gary, NC: SAS Institute; 1989.

        • Butler H.S.
        Hospital feeding of immigrants from India and Pakistan.
        Nutrition. 1967; 21: 28-34
        • Dunnigan M.G.
        Asian rickets osteomalacia in Britain.
        in: Child Nutrition and Its Relation to Mental and Physical Development. Kellogg Co, Stretford Great Britain1977: 43-70
        • Lal H.
        • Agarwal K.N.
        • Gupta M.
        • Agarwal D.K.
        Protein and iron supplementations by altering cooking practices in community.
        Indian J Med Res. 1973; 61: 918-925
      4. Composition of Foods. US Dept of Agriculture, Washington, DC1989 (Handbooks 8-1 through 8-20.)
        • Lyle R.M.
        • Weaver C.M.
        • Sedlock D.A.
        • Rajaram S.
        • Martin B.
        • Melby C.L.
        Iron status in exercising women.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 1992; 56: 1049-1055
        • Liu D.
        • Chen Z.
        • Lei H.
        • Lu M.
        • Li R.
        • Li L.
        Investigation of the amount of dissolved iron in food cooked in Chinese iron pots arid estimation of daily iron intake.
        Biomed Environ Sci. 1990; 3: 276-280
        • Kuligowski J.
        • Halperin K.M.
        Stainless steel cookware as a significant source of nickel, chromium, and iron.
        Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 1992; 23: 211-215