Trends in Vitamin D Intake from Food Sources among Adults in the Minneapolis-St Paul, MN, Metropolitan Area, 1980-1982 through 2007-2009

      Abstract

      Background

      Changes in eating habits could potentially be contributing to vitamin D insufficiency among US adults.

      Objective

      Describe secular trends in vitamin D intake from food sources during the past 25 years.

      Design

      Trends in dietary vitamin D intake from 1980-1982 to 2007-2009 were examined using data collected from the Minnesota Heart Survey, a surveillance study of trends in risk factors for cardiovascular disease among probability samples of adults aged 25 to 74 years in the Minneapolis-St Paul, MN, metropolitan area. Surveys were conducted in 1980-1982, 1985-1987, 1990-1992, 1995-1997, 2000-2002, and 2007-2009. One 24-hour recall was collected from survey participants during each survey period.

      Results

      Vitamin D intake from food sources decreased between 1980-1982 and 2007-2009 among men, with age-adjusted mean vitamin D intake decreasing from 7.24 μg/day in 1980-1982 to 6.15 μg/day in 2007-2009 (P for trend <0.001). A decrease was also observed among women (4.77 μg/day in 1980-1982 in comparison to 4.53 μg/day in 2007-2009; P for trend <0.001).

      Conclusions

      Results suggest that vitamin D intake from food sources has been on the decline during the past 25 years among men and women, potentially contributing to vitamin D insufficiency.
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      Biography

      L. J. Harnack is a professor, Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.

      Biography

      L. Steffen is an associate professor, Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.

      Biography

      Xia Zhou is a project coordinator, Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.

      Biography

      R. V. Luepker is a professor, Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.