Research Research and Practice Innovation| Volume 111, ISSUE 8, P1231-1235, August 2011

Download started.


Slowing Bite-Rate Reduces Energy Intake: An Application of the Bite Counter Device


      Slow eating may be associated with reduced energy intake. A device that counts bites can provide bite-rate feedback to the user. The purpose of this study was to explore the bite counter's utility for slowing bite-rate and reducing energy intake. The study was a within-participants design with three conditions. From February to April 2009, university students (N=30) ate three meals in the laboratory: a baseline meal without feedback (Baseline), a meal during which participants received bite-rate feedback (Feedback), and a meal during which participants followed a 50% slower bite-rate target (Slow Bite-Rate). Kilocalories of food consumed, ratings of satiation and food-liking, and milliliters of water consumed were statistically compared across conditions using repeated-measures analyses of variance. Overall, participants ate 70 kcal fewer during the Slow Bite-Rate condition compared with the Feedback condition. In addition, when baseline energy consumption was added post hoc as a grouping variable, participants who ate more than 400 kcal at baseline (n=11) ate 164 kcal fewer during the Slow Bite-Rate condition compared to Baseline, and 142 kcal fewer in the Feedback condition compared with Baseline. However, the Slow Bite-Rate condition did not significantly affect participants who ate fewer than 400 kcal at baseline (n=19). Therefore, it seems that slowing bite-rate with the bite counter may be most effective for individuals who consume larger amounts of food. Future research should explore more foods and drinks, more diverse groups of individuals, potential moderating variables, and additional applications of the bite counter.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Ogden C.L.
        • Carroll M.D.
        • Curtin L.R.
        • McDowell M.A.
        • Tabak C.J.
        • Flegal K.M.
        Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999-2004.
        JAMA. 2006; 295: 1549-1555
        • Ogden C.L.
        • Carroll M.D.
        • McDowell M.A.
        • Flegal K.M.
        Obesity among adults in the United States—No change since 2003-2004.
        NCHS data brief no 1. National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, MD2007
        • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
        Health Consequences.
        (Updated August 19, 2009. Accessed July 27, 2010)
        • Fabricatore A.N.
        • Wadden T.A.
        Lifestyle modification in the treatment of obesity.
        in: Goldstein D.J. The Management of Eating Disorders and Obesity. 2nd ed. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ2005: 209-229
      1. Hoover A, Muth E, Dong Y, inventor. Weight Control Device. US Provisional patent application serial no. 61/144,203. Filed January 13, 2009.

        • Green G.W.
        • Andrade A.
        • Melanson K.
        • Hoerr S.L.
        • Kattleman K.
        Eating rate and body mass index in college students.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 1995; 108: A-26
        • Otsuka R.
        • Tamakoshi K.
        • Yatsuya H.
        • Murata C.
        • Sekiya A.
        • Wada K.
        • Zhang H.M.
        • Matsushita K.
        • Sugiura K.
        • Takefuji S.
        • OuYang P.
        • Nagasawa N.
        • Kondo T.
        • Sasaki S.
        • Toyoshima H.
        Eating fast leads to obesity: Findings based on self-administered questionnaires among middle-aged Japanese men and women.
        J Epidemiol. 2006; 16: 117-124
        • Sasaki S.
        • Katagiri A.
        • Tsuji T.
        • Shimoda T.
        • Amano K.
        Self-reported rate of eating correlates with body mass index in 18-y-old Japanese women.
        Int J Obes. 2003; 27: 1405-1410
        • Takayama S.
        • Akamine Y.
        • Okabe T.
        • Koya Y.
        • Haraguchi M.
        • Miyata Y.
        • Sakai T.
        • Sakura H.
        • Sasaki T.
        Rate of eating and body weight in patients with type 2 diabetes or hyperlipidaemia.
        J Int Med Res. 2002; 30: 442-444
        • Maruyama K.
        • Sato S.
        • Ohira T.
        • Maeda K.
        • Noda H.
        • Kubota Y.
        • Nishimura S.
        • Kitamura A.
        • Kiyama M.
        • Okada T.
        • Imano H.
        • Nakamura M.
        • Ishikawa Y.
        • Kurokawa M.
        • Sasaki S.
        • Iso H.
        The joint impact on being overweight of self reported behaviours of eating quickly and eating until full: Cross sectional survey.
        Br Med J. 2008; 337: a2002
        • Gerace T.A.
        • George V.A.
        Predictors of weight increases over 7 years in fire fighters and paramedics.
        Prev Med. 1996; 25: 593-600
        • Barkeling B.
        • Rössner S.
        • Sjöberg A.
        Methodological studies on single meal food intake characteristics in normal weight and obese men and women.
        Int J Obes. 1995; 19: 284-290
        • Hill H.W.
        • McCutcheon N.B.
        Contributions of obesity, gender, hunger, food preference and body size, bite speed, and rate of eating.
        Appetite. 1984; 5: 73-83
        • Laessle R.G.
        • Lehrke S.
        • Dückers S.
        Laboratory eating behavior in obesity.
        Appetite. 2007; 49: 399-404
        • Andrade A.M.
        • Greene G.W.
        • Melanson K.J.
        Eating slowly led to decreases in energy intake within meals in healthy women.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2008; 108: 1186-1191
        • Martin C.K.
        • Anton S.D.
        • Walden H.
        • Arnett C.
        • Greenway F.L.
        • Williamson D.A.
        Slower eating rate reduces the food intake of men, but not women: Implications for behavioral weight control.
        Behav Res Ther. 2007; 45: 2349-2359
        • Spiegel T.A.
        • Wadden T.A.
        • Foster G.D.
        Objective measurement of eating rate during behavioral treatment of obesity.
        Behav Ther. 1991; 22: 61-67
        • Yeomans M.R.
        • Gray R.W.
        • Mitchell C.J.
        • True S.
        Independent effects of palatability and within-meal pauses on intake and appetite ratings in human volunteers.
        Appetite. 1997; 29: 61-76
        • Ebbeling C.B.
        • Garcia-Lago E.
        • Leidig M.M.
        • Seger-Shippee L.G.
        • Feldman H.A.
        • Ludwig D.S.
        Altering portion sizes and eating rate to attenuate gorging during a fast food meal: Effects on energy intake.
        Pediatrics. 2007; 119: 869-875
        • Spiegel T.A.
        • Kaplan J.M.
        • Tomassini A.
        • Stellar E.
        Bite size, ingestion rate, and meal size in lean and obese women.
        Appetite. 1993; 21: 131-145
        • Huang T.T.K.
        • Harris K.J.
        • Lee R.E.
        • Nazir N.
        • Born W.
        • Kaur H.
        Assessing overweight, obesity, diet, and physical activity in college students.
        J Am Coll Health. 2003; 52: 83-86
        • Lowry R.
        • Galuska D.A.
        • Fulton J.E.
        • Wechsler H.
        • Kann L.
        • Collins J.L.
        Physical activity, food choice, and weight management goals and practices among US college students.
        Am J Prev Med. 2000; 18: 18-27
        • Cardello A.V.
        • Schutz H.G.
        • Lesher L.L.
        • Merrill E.
        Development and testing of a labeled magnitude scale of perceived satiety.
        Appetite. 2005; 44: 1-13
        • Kellogg Company
        Annual report 2009.
        (Accessed December 14, 2010)
        • Siega-Riz A.M.
        • Popkin B.M.
        • Carson T.
        Differences in food patterns at breakfast by sociodemographic characteristics among a nationally representative sample of adults in the United States.
        Prev Med. 2000; 30: 415-424
        • Covino R.M.
        Breakfast of champions.
        Frozen Food Age. 2005; 54: 40
        • Schutz H.G.
        • Cardello A.V.
        A labeled affective magnitude (LAM) scale for assessing food liking/disliking.
        J Sensory Stud. 2001; 16: 117-159
        • Tabachnick B.G.
        • Fidell L.S.
        Using Multivariate Statistics.
        5th ed. Allyn and Bacon, Boston, MA2007
        • Rolls B.
        • Ello-Marton J.
        • Ledikwe J.
        Portion size and food intake.
        in: Mela D.J. Food, Diet, and Obesity. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL2005


      J. L. Scisco is a doctoral candidate, Department of Psychology, Clemson University, Clemson, SC.


      E. R. Muth is a professor and Director of Human Factors Institute, Department of Psychology, Clemson University, Clemson, SC.


      Y. Dong is a doctoral candidate, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC.


      A. W. Hoover is an associate professor, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC.