Advertisement

NOTICE: We are experiencing technical issues with Academy members trying to log into the JAND site using Academy member login credentials. We are working to resolve the issue as soon as possible. Alternatively, if you are an Academy member, you can access the JAND site by registering for an Elsevier account and claiming access using the links at the top of the JAND site. Email us at [email protected] for assistance. Thanks for your patience!

Multiple Sociodemographic and Socioenvironmental Characteristics Are Correlated with Major Patterns of Dietary Intake in Adolescents

      Abstract

      Background

      Few studies have used dietary pattern analysis, a useful method to summarize dietary intake, in adolescents.

      Objective

      Examine sociodemographic and socioenvironmental correlates of habitual dietary patterns.

      Design

      Data for this cross-sectional/prospective analysis were drawn from Project EAT (Eating Among Teens), a population-based study.

      Subjects/setting

      Project EAT-I (Time 1), collected data on 4,746 adolescents in 1998-1999. Project EAT-II (Time 2) resurveyed 53% (n=2,516) of the original cohort 5 years later in 2003-2004. Dietary intake was assessed using the Youth/Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire.

      Main outcome measures/statistical analysis performed

      Factor analysis identified four dietary patterns at Time 1 (vegetable, fruit, starchy food, and snack food) and Time 2 (vegetable and fruit, fast food, starchy food, and snack food). Linear regression was used to examine the relationship of Time 1 socioeconomic status and race (mutually adjusted) on factor scores for each dietary pattern, and then of Time 1 socioenvironmental characteristics (adjusted for socioeconomic status and race) on these factor scores.

      Results

      In prospective analyses, socioeconomic status, family meal frequency, and home availability of healthy food were positively associated with the vegetable and fruit and starchy food patterns and inversely associated with the fast food pattern. Home availability of unhealthy food was inversely associated with the vegetable and fruit and starchy food patterns and positively associated with the fast food and snack food patterns. Maternal, paternal, and peer support for healthy eating were positively associated with the vegetable and fruit pattern and inversely associated with the fast food pattern. Similar associations were seen in cross-sectional analyses.

      Conclusions

      Multiple correlates of dietary patterns were identified. Health professionals should target these factors to improve the dietary quality of habitual eating practices in adolescents by encouraging parents to decrease home availability of unhealthy food while increasing availability of healthy food, family meal frequency, and parental support for healthy eating.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Sebastian R.S.
        • Cleveland L.E.
        • Goldman J.D.
        Effect of snacking frequency on adolescents' dietary intakes and meeting national recommendations.
        J Adolesc Health. 2008; 42: 503-511
        • Ogden C.L.
        • Carroll M.D.
        • Curtin L.R.
        • McDowell M.A.
        • Tabak C.J.
        • Flegal K.M.
        Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999-2004.
        JAMA. 2006; 295: 1549-1555
        • Newby P.K.
        Are dietary intakes and eating behaviors related to childhood obesity?.
        J Law Med Ethics. 2007; 35: 35-60
        • Story M.
        • Neumark-Sztainer D.
        • French S.
        Individual and environmental influences on adolescent eating behaviors.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2002; 102: S40-S51
        • Barkoukis H.
        Importance of understanding food consumption patterns.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2007; 107: 234-236
        • Hu F.B.
        Dietary pattern analysis: A new direction in nutritional epidemiology.
        Curr Opin Lipidol. 2002; 13: 3-9
        • Newby P.K.
        • Tucker K.L.
        Empirically derived eating patterns using factor or cluster analysis: A review.
        Nutr Rev. 2004; 62: 177-203
        • Marchioni D.M.
        • Latorre Mdo R.
        • Eluf-Neto J.
        • Wunsch-Filho V.
        • Fisberg R.M.
        Identification of dietary patterns using factor analysis in an epidemiological study in Sao Paulo.
        Sao Paulo Med J. 2005; 123: 124-127
        • van Dam R.M.
        New approaches to the study of dietary patterns.
        Br J Nutr. 2005; 93: 573-574
        • Aranceta J.
        • Perez-Rodrigo C.
        • Ribas L.
        • Serra-Majem L.
        Sociodemographic and lifestyle determinants of food patterns in Spanish children and adolescents: The enKid study.
        Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003; 57: S40-S44
        • McNaughton S.A.
        • Ball K.
        • Mishra G.D.
        • Crawford D.A.
        Dietary patterns of adolescents and risk of obesity and hypertension.
        J Nutr. 2008; 138: 364-370
        • Ambrosini G.L.
        • Oddy W.H.
        • Robinson M.
        • O'Sullivan T.A.
        • Hands B.P.
        • de Klerk N.H.
        • Silburn S.R.
        • Zubrick S.R.
        • Kendall G.E.
        • Stanley F.J.
        • Beilin L.J.
        Adolescent dietary patterns are associated with lifestyle and family psycho-social factors.
        Public Health Nutr. 2009; : 1-9
        • Kourlaba G.
        • Panagiotakos D.B.
        • Mihas K.
        • Alevizos A.
        • Marayiannis K.
        • Mariolis A.
        • Tountas Y.
        Dietary patterns in relation to socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics among Greek adolescents: A multivariate analysis.
        Public Health Nutr. 2009; 12: 1366-1372
        • Baranowski T.
        • Perry C.L.
        • Parcel G.S.
        How individuals, environments, and health behavior interact: Social cognitive theory.
        in: Glanz Health Behavior and Health Eductation: Theory, Research and Practice. 3rd ed. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA2002: 165-184
        • Rockett H.R.
        • Berkey C.S.
        • Colditz G.A.
        Evaluation of dietary assessment instruments in adolescents.
        Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2003; 6: 557-562
        • Rockett H.R.
        • Breitenbach M.
        • Frazier A.L.
        • Witschi J.
        • Wolf A.M.
        • Field A.E.
        • Colditz G.A.
        Validation of a youth/adolescent food frequency questionnaire.
        Prev Med. 1997; 26: 808-816
        • Rockett H.R.
        • Wolf A.M.
        • Colditz G.A.
        Development and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess diets of older children and adolescents.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 1995; 95: 336-340
        • Cullen K.W.
        • Zakeri I.
        The youth/adolescent questionnaire has low validity and modest reliability among low-income African-American and Hispanic seventh- and eighth-grade youth.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2004; 104: 1415-1419
        • Kristal A.R.
        • Feng Z.
        • Coates R.J.
        • Oberman A.
        • George V.
        Associations of race/ethnicity, education, and dietary intervention with the validity and reliability of a food frequency questionnaire: The women's health trial feasibility study in minority populations.
        Am J Epidemiol. 1997; 146: 856-869
        • Utter J.
        • Neumark-Sztainer D.
        • Jeffery R.
        • Story M.
        Couch potatoes or French fries: Are sedentary behaviors associated with body mass index, physical activity, and dietary behaviors among adolescents?.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2003; 103: 1298-1305
        • Xie B.
        • Gilliland F.D.
        • Li Y.F.
        • Rockett H.R.
        Effects of ethnicity, family income, and education on dietary intake among adolescents.
        Prev Med. 2003; 36: 30-40
        • Newby P.K.
        • Muller D.
        • Hallfrisch J.
        • Andres R.
        • Tucker K.L.
        Food patterns measured by factor analysis and anthropometric changes in adults.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2004; 80: 504-513
        • Bamia C.
        • Orfanos P.
        • Ferrari P.
        • Overvad K.
        • Hundborg H.H.
        • Tjonneland A.
        • Olsen A.
        • Kesse E.
        • Boutron-Ruault M.C.
        • Clavel-Chapelon F.
        • Nagel G.
        • Boffetta P.
        • Boeing H.
        • Hoffmann K.
        • Trichopoulos D.
        • Baibas N.
        • Psaltopoulou T.
        • Norat T.
        • Slimani N.
        • Palli D.
        • Krogh V.
        • Panico S.
        • Tumino R.
        • Sacerdote C.
        • Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B.
        • Ocke M.C.
        • Peeters P.H.
        • van Rossum C.T.
        • Quiros J.R.
        • Sanchez M.J.
        • Navarro C.
        • Barricarte A.
        • Dorronsoro M.
        • Berglund G.
        • Wirfalt E.
        • Hallmans G.
        • Johansson I.
        • Bingham S.
        • Khaw K.T.
        • Spencer E.A.
        • Roddam A.W.
        • Riboli E.
        • Trichopoulou A.
        Dietary patterns among older Europeans: The EPIC-elderly study.
        Br J Nutr. 2005; 94: 100-113
        • Costacou T.
        • Bamia C.
        • Ferrari P.
        • Riboli E.
        • Trichopoulos D.
        • Trichopoulou A.
        Tracing the Mediterranean diet through principal components and cluster analyses in the Greek population.
        Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003; 57: 1378-1385
        • Engeset D.
        • Alsaker E.
        • Ciampi A.
        • Lund E.
        Dietary patterns and lifestyle factors in the norwegian EPIC cohort: The Norwegian women and cancer (NOWAC) study.
        Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005; 59: 675-684
        • Greenwood D.C.
        • Cade J.E.
        • Draper A.
        • Barrett J.H.
        • Calvert C.
        • Greenhalgh A.
        Seven unique food consumption patterns identified among women in the UK women's cohort study.
        Eur J Clin Nutr. 2000; 54: 314-320
        • Kesse-Guyot E.
        • Bertrais S.
        • Peneau S.
        • Estaquio C.
        • Dauchet L.
        • Vergnaud A.C.
        • Czernichow S.
        • Galan P.
        • Hercberg S.
        • Bellisle F.
        Dietary patterns and their sociodemographic and behavioural correlates in French middle-aged adults from the SU.VI.MAX cohort.
        Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009; 63: 521-528
        • Mishra G.
        • Ball K.
        • Arbuckle J.
        • Crawford D.
        Dietary patterns of Australian adults and their association with socioeconomic status: Results from the 1995 national nutrition survey.
        Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002; 56: 687-693
        • Mishra G.D.
        • McNaughton S.A.
        • Bramwell G.D.
        • Wadsworth M.E.
        Longitudinal changes in dietary patterns during adult life.
        Br J Nutr. 2006; 96: 735-744
        • Pala V.
        • Sieri S.
        • Masala G.
        • Palli D.
        • Panico S.
        • Vineis P.
        • Sacerdote C.
        • Mattiello A.
        • Galasso R.
        • Salvini S.
        • Ceroti M.
        • Berrino F.
        • Fusconi E.
        • Tumino R.
        • Frasca G.
        • Riboli E.
        • Trichopoulou A.
        • Baibas N.
        • Krogh V.
        Associations between dietary pattern and lifestyle, anthropometry and other health indicators in the elderly participants of the EPIC-Italy cohort.
        Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2006; 16: 186-201
        • Pryer J.A.
        • Nichols R.
        • Elliott P.
        • Thakrar B.
        • Brunner E.
        • Marmot M.
        Dietary patterns among a national random sample of British adults.
        J Epidemiol Community Health. 2001; 55: 29-37
        • Yang E.J.
        • Kerver J.M.
        • Song W.O.
        Dietary patterns of Korean Americans described by factor analysis.
        J Am Coll Nutr. 2005; 24: 115-121
        • Sanchez-Villegas A.
        • Delgado-Rodriguez M.
        • Martinez-Gonzalez M.A.
        • De Irala-Estevez J.
        • Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra group
        Gender, age, socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with major dietary patterns in the Spanish project SUN (seguimiento universidad de navarra).
        Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003; 57: 285-292
        • Perrin A.E.
        • Dallongeville J.
        • Ducimetiere P.
        • Ruidavets J.B.
        • Schlienger J.L.
        • Arveiler D.
        • Simon C.
        Interactions between traditional regional determinants and socio-economic status on dietary patterns in a sample of French men.
        Br J Nutr. 2005; 93: 109-114
        • Befort C.
        • Kaur H.
        • Nollen N.
        • Sullivan D.K.
        • Nazir N.
        • Choi W.S.
        • Hornberger L.
        • Ahluwalia J.S.
        Fruit, vegetable, and fat intake among non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white adolescents: Associations with home availability and food consumption settings.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2006; 106: 367-373
        • Haerens L.
        • Craeynest M.
        • Deforche B.
        • Maes L.
        • Cardon G.
        • De Bourdeaudhuij I.
        The contribution of psychosocial and home environmental factors in explaining eating behaviours in adolescents.
        Eur J Clin Nutr. 2008; 62: 51-59
        • Pearson N.
        • Biddle S.J.
        • Gorely T.
        Family correlates of fruit and vegetable consumption in children and adolescents: A systematic review.
        Public Health Nutr. 2009; 12: 267-283
        • Wind M.
        • Bobelijn K.
        • De Bourdeaudhuij I.
        • Klepp K.I.
        • Brug J.
        A qualitative exploration of determinants of fruit and vegetable intake among 10- and 11-year-old schoolchildren in the low countries.
        Ann Nutr Metab. 2005; 49: 228-235
        • Shi Z.
        • Lien N.
        • Kumar B.N.
        • Holmboe-Ottesen G.
        Socio-demographic differences in food habits and preferences of school adolescents in Jiangsu province, China.
        Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005; 59: 1439-1448
        • Kant A.K.
        Dietary patterns and health outcomes.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2004; 104: 615-635
      1. Expert Committee recommendations on the assessment, prevention, and treatment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity.
        (American Medical Association Web site) (Accessed December 1, 2007)
        • Himes J.H.
        • Dietz W.H.
        Guidelines for overweight in adolescent preventive services: Recommendations from an expert committee.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 1994; 59: 307-316
        • Kuczmarski R.J.
        • Ogden C.L.
        • Grummer-Strawn L.M.
        • Flegal K.M.
        • Guo S.S.
        • Wei R.
        • Mei Z.
        • Curtin L.R.
        • Roche A.F.
        • Johnson C.L.
        CDC growth charts: United States.
        Adv Data. 2000; 314: 1-27
        • Neumark-Sztainer D.
        • Wall M.
        • Perry C.
        • Story M.
        Correlates of fruit and vegetable intake among adolescents: Findings from Project EAT.
        Prev Med. 2003; 37: 198-208
        • French S.A.
        • Story M.
        • Neumark-Sztainer D.
        • Fulkerson J.A.
        • Hannan P.
        Fast food restaurant use among adolescents: Associations with nutrient intake, food choices and behavioral and psychosocial variables.
        Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001; 25: 1823-1833
        • Neumark-Sztainer D.
        • Story M.
        • Hannan P.J.
        • Croll J.
        Overweight status and eating patterns among adolescents: Where do youths stand in comparison with the healthy people 2010 objectives?.
        Am J Public Health. 2002; 92: 844-851

      Biography

      G. J. Cutler is a senior epidemiologist, Minnesota Department of Health, St Paul; at the time of the study, she was a predoctoral fellow, Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.

      Biography

      A. Flood is an associate professor, Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.

      Biography

      P. Hannan is a senior research fellow, Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.

      Biography

      D. Neumark-Sztainer is a professor, Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.