Association of Modifiable and Nonmodifiable Factors with Vitamin D Status in Pregnant Women and Neonates in Oakland, CA


      There is little information on the contribution of modifiable vs nonmodifiable factors to maternal and neonatal vitamin D status in temperate regions of the United States. The purpose of this cross-sectional observation study conducted between December 2006 and February 2008 was to identify associations between observed and measured maternal characteristics and vitamin D status at term in pregnant women and their infants in a multiethnic community in Oakland, CA. Two hundred seventy-five pregnant women aged 18 to 45 years and carrying a singleton fetus were recruited and data from 210 mother-infant pairs were included in analyses. Analysis of covariance identified predictors of maternal and cord serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in a multivariate model considering vitamin D intake, lifestyle factors, and skin pigmentation. Maternal serum 25(OH)D was significantly associated with season of delivery (P=0.0002), average daily D intake (P=0.0008), right upper inner arm pigmentation (P=0.0035), and maternal pre- or early-pregnancy body mass index (calculated as kg/m2) (P=0.0207). The same factors were significant for cord serum 25(OH)D, which was highly correlated with maternal serum 25(OH)D (r=0.79; P<0.0001). During the year, 54% of mothers and 90% of neonates had 25(OH)D <30 ng/mL (<75 nmol/L). Of women taking daily prenatal vitamin/mineral supplements (400 IU vitamin D), 50.7% had serum 25(OH)D <30 ng/mL (<75 nmol/L). In conclusion, 25(OH)D <30 ng/mL (<75 nmol/L) was prevalent in mothers and neonates across racial groups and seasons, and vitamin D status was associated with both modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors.
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      D. K. Dror is a postdoctoral nutritionist, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Services, Western Human Nutrition Research Center, Davis, CA; at the time of the study, she was a graduate student researcher, Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis.


      J. C. King is a senior scientist, Children's Hospital and Research Center, Oakland, CA.


      D. J. Durand is a neonatologist, Children's Hospital and Research Center, Oakland, CA.


      L. H. Allen is director, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Services, Western Human Nutrition Research Center, Davis, CA.