Advertisement

The Content of Favorable and Unfavorable Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Found in Commonly Eaten Fish

      Abstract

      Changes in diet during the past century have caused a marked increase in consumption of saturated fatty acids and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with a concomitant decrease in the intake of n-3 PUFAs. Increased fish consumption has been shown to be the only realistic way to increase dietary quantities of beneficial long-chain n-3 PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid and re-establish more balanced n-6:n-3 ratios in the diets of human beings. Our objective in this research was to characterize some of the relevant fatty acid chemistry of commonly consumed fish, with a particular focus on the four most commonly consumed farmed fish. To do this, 30 commonly consumed farmed and wild fish were collected from supermarkets and wholesalers throughout the United States. Fatty acid composition of samples from these fish was determined using gas chromatography. The 30 samples studied contained n-3 PUFAs ranging from fish having almost undetectable levels to fish having nearly 4.0 g n-3 PUFA per 100 g fish. The four most commonly farmed fish, Atlantic salmon, trout, tilapia, and catfish, were more closely examined. This analysis revealed that trout and Atlantic salmon contained relatively high concentrations of n-3 PUFA, low n-6:n-3 ratios, and favorable saturated fatty acid plus monounsaturated fatty acid to PUFA ratios. In contrast, tilapia (the fastest growing and most widely farmed fish) and catfish have much lower concentrations of n-3 PUFA, very high ratios of long chain n-6 to long chain n-3 PUFAs, and high saturated fatty acid plus monounsaturated fatty acid to PUFA ratios. Taken together, these data reveal that marked changes in the fishing industry during the past decade have produced widely eaten fish that have fatty acid characteristics that are generally accepted to be inflammatory by the health care community.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • He K.
        • Song Y.
        • Daviglus M.L.
        • Liu K.
        • Van Horn L.
        • Dyer A.R.
        • Goldbourt U.
        • Greenland P.
        Risks and benefits of seafood consumption.
        Am J Prev Med. 2006; 30: 440-441
        • Hites R.A.
        • Foran J.A.
        • Schwager S.J.
        • Knuth B.A.
        • Hamilton M.C.
        • Carpenter D.O.
        Global assessment of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in farmed and wild salmon.
        Environ Sci Technol. 2004; 38: 4945-4949
        • Hites R.A.
        • Foran J.A.
        • Carpenter D.O.
        • Hamilton M.C.
        • Knuth B.A.
        • Schwager S.J.
        Global assessment of organic contaminants in farmed salmon.
        Science. 2004; 303: 226-229
        • Cohen J.T.
        • Bellinger D.C.
        • Connor W.E.
        • Kris-Etherton P.M.
        • Lawrence R.S.
        • Savitz D.A.
        • Shaywitz B.A.
        • Teutsch S.M.
        • Gray G.M.
        A quantitative risk-benefit analysis of changes in population fish consumption.
        Am J Prev Med. 2005; 29: 325-334
      1. Fisheries Global Information System (FIGIS) of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Home page.
        (Accessed April 15, 2008)
        • Josupeit H.
        Aquaculture production and markets.
        (Globefish/FAO Fisheries Department Web site) (Accessed August 8, 2007)
        • Mozaffarian D.
        • Psaty B.M.
        • Rimm E.B.
        • Lemaitre R.N.
        • Burke G.L.
        • Lyles M.F.
        • Lefkowitz D.
        • Siscovick D.S.
        Fish intake and risk of incident atrial fibrillation.
        Circulation. 2004; 110: 368-373
        • He K.
        • Song Y.
        • Daviglus M.L.
        • Liu K.
        • Van Horn L.
        • Dyer A.R.
        • Greenland P.
        Accumulated evidence on fish consumption and coronary heart disease mortality: A meta-analysis of cohort studies.
        Circulation. 2004; 109: 2705-2711
        • Lichtenstein A.H.
        • Appel L.J.
        • Brands M.
        • Carnethon M.
        • Daniels S.
        • Franch H.A.
        • Franklin B.
        • Kris-Etherton P.
        • Harris W.S.
        • Howard B.
        • Karanja N.
        • Lefevre M.
        • Rudel L.
        • Sacks F.
        • Van Horn L.
        • Winston M.
        • Wylie-Rosett J.
        Diet and lifestyle recommendations revision 2006: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association Nutrition Committee.
        Circulation. 2006; 114: 82-96
        • Wada M.
        • Delong C.J.
        • Hong Y.H.
        • Rieke C.J.
        • Song I.
        • Sidhu R.S.
        • Yuan C.
        • Warnock M.
        • Schmaier A.H.
        • Yokoyama C.
        • Smyth E.M.
        • Wilson S.J.
        • FitzGerald G.A.
        • Garavito R.M.
        • Sui de X.
        • Regan J.W.
        • Smith W.L.
        Enzymes and receptors of prostaglandin pathways with arachidonic acid-derived versus eicosapentaenoic acid-derived substrates and products.
        J Biol Chem. 2007; 282: 22254-22266
        • Serhan C.N.
        Resolution phases of inflammation: Novel endogenous anti-inflammatory and proresolving lipid mediators and pathways.
        Annu Rev Immunol. 2007; 25: 101-137
        • Hamilton M.C.
        • Hites R.A.
        • Schwager S.J.
        • Foran J.A.
        • Knuth B.A.
        • Carpenter D.O.
        Lipid composition and contaminants in farmed and wild salmon.
        Environ Sci Technol. 2005; 39: 8622-8629
        • Metcalfe L.D.
        • Schmitz A.A.
        • Pelka J.R.
        Rapid preparation of fatty acid esters from lipids for gas chromatographic analysis.
        Analytic Chem. 1966; 38: 514-515
        • Kingsbury K.J.
        • Brett C.
        • Stovold R.
        • Chapman A.
        • Anderson J.
        • Morgan D.M.
        Abnormal fatty acid composition and human atherosclerosis.
        Postgrad Med J. 1974; 50: 425-440
        • Ma J.
        • Folsom A.R.
        • Lewis L.
        • Eckfeldt J.H.
        Relation of plasma phospholipid and cholesterol ester fatty acid composition to carotid artery intima-media thickness: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 1997; 65: 551-559
        • Parks J.S.
        • Kaduck-Sawyer J.
        • Bullock B.C.
        • Rudel L.L.
        Effect of dietary fish oil on coronary artery and aortic atherosclerosis in African green monkeys.
        Arteriosclerosis. 1990; 10: 1102-1112
        • Pawlosky R.J.
        • Hibbeln J.R.
        • Novotny J.A.
        • Salem Jr, N.
        Physiological compartmental analysis of alpha-linolenic acid metabolism in adult humans.
        J Lipid Res. 2001; 42: 1257-1265
        • Serhan C.N.
        • Savill J.
        Resolution of inflammation: The beginning programs the end.
        Nat Immunol. 2005; 6: 1191-1197
      2. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR 20).
        (US Dept of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service Web site) (Accessed April 15, 2008)
        • Flowers M.T.
        • Miyazaki M.
        • Liu X.
        • Ntambi J.M.
        Probing the role of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 in hepatic insulin resistance.
        J Clin Invest. 2006; 116: 1478-1481
        • Gutierrez-Juarez R.
        • Pocai A.
        • Mulas C.
        • Ono H.
        • Bhanot S.
        • Monia B.P.
        • Rossetti L.
        Critical role of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) in the onset of diet-induced hepatic insulin resistance.
        J Clin Invest. 2006; 116: 1686-1695
        • Sampath H.
        • Miyazaki M.
        • Dobrzyn A.
        • Ntambi J.M.
        Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 mediates the pro-lipogenic effects of dietary saturated fat.
        J Biol Chem. 2007; 282: 2483-2493
        • Xie W.
        • Hamilton J.A.
        • Kirkland J.L.
        • Corkey B.E.
        • Guo W.
        Oleate-induced formation of fat cells with impaired insulin sensitivity.
        Lipids. 2006; 41: 267-271
        • Harris W.S.
        • Assaad B.
        • Poston W.C.
        Tissue n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio and risk for coronary artery disease.
        Am J Cardiol. 2006; 98: 19i-26i
        • Harris W.S.
        • Poston W.C.
        • Haddock C.K.
        Tissue n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and risk for coronary heart disease events.
        Atherosclerosis. 2007; 193: 1-10
        • Kelley D.S.
        • Taylor P.C.
        • Nelson G.J.
        • Mackey B.E.
        Arachidonic acid supplementation enhances synthesis of eicosanoids without suppressing immune functions in young healthy men.
        Lipids. 1998; 33: 125-130
        • Kusumoto A.
        • Ishikura Y.
        • Kawashima H.
        • Kiso Y.
        • Takai S.
        • Miyazaki M.
        Effects of arachidonate-enriched triacylglycerol supplementation on serum fatty acids and platelet aggregation in healthy male subjects with a fish diet.
        Br J Nutr. 2007; 98: 626-635
        • Ferretti A.
        • Nelson G.J.
        • Schmidt P.C.
        • Kelley D.S.
        • Bartolini G.
        • Flanagan V.P.
        Increased dietary arachidonic acid enhances the synthesis of vasoactive eicosanoids in humans.
        Lipids. 1997; 32: 435-439
        • Kelley D.S.
        • Taylor P.C.
        • Nelson G.J.
        • Mackey B.E.
        Dietary docosahexaenoic acid and immunocompetence in young healthy men.
        Lipids. 1998; 33: 559-566
        • Seyberth H.W.
        • Oelz O.
        • Kennedy T.
        • Sweetman B.J.
        • Danon A.
        • Frolich J.C.
        • Heimberg M.
        • Oates J.A.
        Increased arachidonate in lipids after administration to man: Effects on prostaglandin biosynthesis.
        Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1975; 18: 521-529
        • Sinclair A.J.
        • Mann N.J.
        Short-term diets rich in arachidonic acid influence plasma phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acid levels and prostacyclin and thromboxane production in humans.
        J Nutr. 1996; 126: 1110S-1114S
        • Kim J.H.
        • Lee S.Y.
        • Kim H.B.
        • Jin H.S.
        • Yu J.H.
        • Kim B.J.
        • Kim B.S.
        • Kang M.J.
        • Jang S.O.
        • Hong S.J.
        TBXA2R gene polymorphism and responsiveness to leukotriene receptor antagonist in children with asthma.
        Clin Exp Allergy. 2008; 38: 51-59
        • Lima J.J.
        Treatment heterogeneity in asthma: Genetics of response to leukotriene modifiers.
        Mol Diagn Ther. 2007; 11: 97-104
        • Cai C.
        • Yang J.
        • Hu S.
        • Zhou M.
        • Guo W.
        Relationship between urinary cysteinyl leukotriene E4 levels and clinical response to antileukotriene treatment in patients with asthma.
        Lung. 2007; 185: 105-112
        • Terashima T.
        • Amakawa K.
        • Matsumaru A.
        • Yamaguchi K.
        Correlation between cysteinyl leukotriene release from leukocytes and clinical response to a leukotriene inhibitor.
        Chest. 2002; 122: 1566-1570
        • Dwyer J.H.
        • Allayee H.
        • Dwyer K.M.
        • Fan J.
        • Wu H.
        • Mar R.
        • Lusis A.J.
        • Mehrabian M.
        Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase promoter genotype, dietary arachidonic acid, and atherosclerosis.
        N Engl J Med. 2004; 350: 29-37
        • Triggiani M.
        • Oriente A.
        • Seeds M.C.
        • Bass D.A.
        • Marone G.
        • Chilton F.H.
        Migration of human inflammatory cells into the lung results in the remodeling of arachidonic acid into a triglyceride pool.
        J Exp Med. 1995; 182: 1181-1190
        • Chilton F.H.
        • Fonteh A.N.
        • Surette M.E.
        • Triggiani M.
        • Winkler J.D.
        Control of arachidonate levels within inflammatory cells.
        Biochim Biophys Acta. 1996; 1299: 1-15
        • Surette M.E.
        • Chilton F.H.
        The distribution and metabolism of arachidonate-containing phospholipids in cellular nuclei.
        Biochem J. 1998; 330: 915-921
        • Johnson M.M.
        • Vaughn B.
        • Triggiani M.
        • Swan D.D.
        • Fonteh A.N.
        • Chilton F.H.
        Role of arachidonyl triglycerides within lipid bodies in eicosanoid formation by human polymorphonuclear cells.
        Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1999; 21: 253-258
        • Laneuville O.
        • Breuer D.K.
        • Xu N.
        • Huang Z.H.
        • Gage D.A.
        • Watson J.T.
        • Lagarde M.
        • DeWitt D.L.
        • Smith W.L.
        Fatty acid substrate specificities of human prostaglandin-endoperoxide H synthase-1 and -2.
        J Biol Chem. 1995; 270: 19330-19336
        • Malkowski M.G.
        • Thuresson E.D.
        • Lakkides K.M.
        • Rieke C.J.
        • Micielli R.
        • Smith W.L.
        • Garavito R.M.
        Structure of eicosapentaenoic and linoleic acids in the cyclooxygenase site of prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthase-1.
        J Biol Chem. 2001; 276: 37547-37555
        • Smith W.L.
        Cyclooxygenases, peroxide tone, and the allure of fish oil.
        Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2005; 17: 174-182
        • Morita I.
        • Takahashi R.
        • Saito Y.
        • Murota S.
        Stimulation of eicosapentaenoic acid metabolism in washed human platelets by 12-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid.
        J Biol Chem. 1983; 258: 10197-10199
        • Needleman P.
        • Raz A.
        • Minkes M.S.
        • Ferrendelli J.A.
        • Sprecher H.
        Triene prostaglandins: Prostacyclin and thromboxane biosynthesis and unique biological properties.
        Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1980; 76: 944-948
        • Needleman P.
        • Whitaker M.O.
        • Wyche A.
        • Watters K.
        • Sprecher H.
        • Raz A.
        Manipulation of platelet aggregation by prostaglandins and their fatty acid precursors: Pharmacological basis for a therapeutic approach.
        Prostaglandins. 1980; 19: 165-181
        • Bagga D.
        • Wang L.
        • Farias-Eisner R.
        • Glaspy J.A.
        • Reddy S.T.
        Differential effects of prostaglandin derived from omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on COX-2 expression and IL-6 secretion.
        Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2003; 100: 1751-1756
        • Zeng L.
        • An S.
        • Goetzl E.J.
        EP4/EP2 receptor-specific prostaglandin E2 regulation of interleukin-6 generation by human HSB.2 early T cells.
        J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998; 286: 1420-1426
        • Karapanagiotidis I.T.
        • Bell M.V.
        • Little D.C.
        • Yakupitiyage A.
        • Rakshit S.K.
        Polyunsaturated fatty acid content of wild and farmed tilapias in Thailand: Effect of aquaculture practices and implications for human nutrition.
        J Agric Food Chem. 2006; 54: 4304-4310
        • Iso H.
        • Kobayashi M.
        • Ishihara J.
        • Sasaki S.
        • Okada K.
        • Kita Y.
        • Kokubo Y.
        • Tsugane S.
        Intake of fish and n-3 fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease among Japanese: The Japan Public Health Center-Based (JPHC) Study Cohort I.
        Circulation. 2006; 113: 195-202
        • USDA Economic Research Service
        US aquaculture outlook report—April 2007.
        (5M Enterprises Ltd Web site) (Accessed April 15, 2008)

      Biography

      K. L. Weaver is with the Department of Internal Medicine, Section on Molecular Medicine, P. Ivester is a research coordinator, and J. A. Chilton and P. Prandey are laboratory assistants, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, M. D. Wilson is a research associate, Department of Pathology, Section on Lipid Sciences, and F. H. Chilton is a professor, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, and director, Wake Forest Center for Botanical Lipids, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC.

      Linked Article

      • Erratum
        Journal of the American Dietetic AssociationVol. 108Issue 10
        • Preview
          In the July 2008 Perspectives in Practice article, “The Content of Favorable and Unfavorable Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Found in Commonly Eaten Fish,” pp 1178-1185, the name of one of the authors was misspelled in the biographical information paragraph on page 1178. “P. Prandey” should have been listed as “P. Pandey.” The Journal apologizes to the author for the error.
        • Full-Text
        • PDF
      • Regarding Favorable and Unfavorable PUFA in Fish
        Journal of the American Dietetic AssociationVol. 108Issue 10
        • Preview
          We would like to thank Dr Harris for his thoughtful comments regarding our paper on favorable and unfavorable polyunsaturated fatty acids found in commonly eaten fish in the July 2008 issue of the Journal (1). Harris is a world-recognized and respected nutritionist, and his thoughts in the form of a Research Editorial (2) are greatly appreciated.
        • Full-Text
        • PDF
      • Concerning PUFA in Fish
        Journal of the American Dietetic AssociationVol. 108Issue 11
        • Preview
          It was surprising to read in the Journal that certain n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), long considered essential nutrients, were deemed unfavorable (1). For years, Americans have been urged to substitute unsaturated fatty acids, including polyunsaturated ones, for saturated ones, with the result that the US consumption of PUFAs is about 7% of energy or more, most of which comes from linoleic acid (2). This increase has been associated with decreased mortality from coronary heart disease and lower incidence of myocardial infarction (3).
        • Full-Text
        • PDF
      • Author's Response
        Journal of the American Dietetic AssociationVol. 108Issue 10
        • Preview
          I appreciate the opportunity to comment on Dr Chilton's comments about my Research Editorial. He indicates that I disagreed with the statement that: “Several studies indicate that there is a strong in vivo correlation between AA [arachidonic acid] consumption and eicosanoid production.” In fact, I do not dispute that higher arachidonic acid intakes lead to higher production levels of eicosanoids. The Ferretti study (1) confirms this. What I dispute is the assumption that this is harmful. An increase in “vasoactive” eicosanoids can mean vaso-constrictive (adverse) and/or vaso-dilatory (beneficial) species.
        • Full-Text
        • PDF