Advertisement

Sources of Food Group Intakes among the US Population, 2001-2002

      Abstract

      Background

      Food guides are typically built around a system of food groups. Accordingly, the US Department of Agriculture's MyPyramid includes both food groups and subgroups, as well as an allowance for discretionary calories, in its guidance.

      Objective

      To identify the major dietary contributors to food group intake in the US population.

      Methods

      This cross-sectional study used 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data to determine weighted population proportions for the contribution of each subgroup to its MyPyramid food group (ie, proportion), and the contribution of specific foods to the subgroups oils, solid fats, and added sugars (ie, major contributors). Food codes associated with each food were sorted into 96 categories, termed specific foods, and were linked to the MyPyramid Equivalents Database to obtain food group equivalents.

      Results

      In regard to proportion, dark green vegetables (6%), orange vegetables (5%), and legumes (6%) fell well short of recommended levels. Intake of whole grains (10% of total) was far below the recommendation that at least half of all grains be whole. In regard to major contributors, top sources of oils were potato chips, salad dressing, and nuts/seeds; major contributors of solid fats were grain-based desserts, cheese, and sausages. Sweetened carbonated beverages provided 37% of added sugars.

      Conclusions

      Americans do not, in general, consume the most nutrient-dense forms of basic food groups, instead consuming foods that are high in solid fats and added sugars. The main culprits—the foods that contribute most to discrepancies between recommendations and actual intake—are sweetened carbonated beverages and other sweetened beverages, grain-based desserts, nonskim dairy products, and fatty meats.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

      1. MyPyramid.
        (US Department of Agriculture Web site) (Accessed September 25, 2007)
        • Krebs-Smith S.M.
        • Kris-Etherton P.
        How does MyPyramid compare to other population-based recommendations for controlling chronic disease?.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2007; 107: 830-837
        • Buzby J.
        • Wells H.F.
        • Vocke G.
        Possible implications for US agriculture from adaptation of select dietary guidelines.
        (US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service Web site) (Accessed February 19, 2008)
        • US Departments of Agriculture and Health and Human Services
        Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005.
        (US Department of Health and Human Services Web site) (Accessed September 25, 2007)
        • Guenther P.M.
        • Dodd K.W.
        • Reedy J.
        • Krebs-Smith S.M.
        Most Americans eat much less than recommended amounts of fruits and vegetables.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2006; 106: 1371-1379
        • Basiotis P.
        • Guenther P.M.
        • Lino M.
        • Britten P.
        Americans consume too many calories from solid fat, alcohol, and added sugars.
        (US Dept of Agriculture Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion Web site) (Accessed February 19, 2008)
      2. Dietary interview, NHANES 2001-2002.
        (Accessed September 25, 2007)
        • Cotton P.A.
        • Subar A.F.
        • Friday J.E.
        • Cook A.
        Dietary sources of nutrients among US adults, 1994 to 1996.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2004; 104: 921-930
        • Subar A.F.
        • Krebs-Smith S.M.
        • Cook A.
        • Kahle L.L.
        Dietary sources of nutrients among US adults, 1989 to 1991.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 1998; 98: 537-547
        • Krebs-Smith S.M.
        • Kott P.S.
        • Guenther P.M.
        Mean proportion and population proportion: Two answers to the same question?.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 1989; 89: 671-676
        • Trabulsi J.
        • Schoeller D.A.
        Evaluation of dietary assessment instruments against doubly labeled water, a biomarker of habitual energy intake.
        Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2001; 281: E891-E899
        • Krebs-Smith S.M.
        • Cronin F.J.
        • Haytowitz D.B.
        • Cook D.A.
        Food sources of energy, macronutrients, cholesterol, and fiber in diets of women.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 1992; 92: 168-174
        • Thompson F.E.
        • Sowers M.F.
        • Frongillo Jr, E.A.
        • Parpia B.J.
        Sources of fiber and fat in diets of US women aged 19 to 50: Implications for nutrition education and policy.
        Am J Public Health. 1992; 82: 695-702
        • Fox M.K.
        • Reidy K.
        • Novak T.
        • Ziegler P.
        Sources of energy and nutrients in the diets of infants and toddlers.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2006; 106: S28-S42
        • Stroehla B.C.
        • Malcoe L.H.
        • Velie E.M.
        Dietary sources of nutrients among rural Native American and white children.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2005; 105: 1908-1916
        • Subar A.F.
        • Block G.
        • James L.D.
        Folate intake and food sources in the US population.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 1989; 50: 508-516
        • Nielsen S.J.
        • Siega-Riz A.M.
        • Popkin B.M.
        Trends in food locations and sources among adolescents and young adults.
        Prev Med. 2002; 35: 107-113
        • Gordon A.R.
        • McKinney P.
        Sources of nutrients in students' diets.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 1995; 61: 232S-240S
        • Ma J.
        • Betts N.M.
        Zinc and copper intakes and their major food sources for older adults in the 1994-96 continuing survey of food intakes by individuals (CSFII).
        J Nutr. 2000; 130: 2838-2843
        • Kant A.K.
        • Block G.
        Dietary vitamin B-6 intake and food sources in the US population: NHANES II, 1976-1980.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 1990; 52: 707-716
        • Murphy S.P.
        • Subar A.F.
        • Block G.
        Vitamin E intakes and sources in the United States.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 1990; 52: 361-367
        • Block G.
        • Norris J.C.
        • Mandel R.M.
        • DiSogra C.
        Sources of energy and six nutrients in diets of low-income Hispanic-American women and their children: Quantitative data from HHANES, 1982-1984.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 1995; 95: 195-208
        • Britten P.
        • Marcoe K.
        • Yamini S.
        • Davis C.
        Development of food intake patterns for the MyPyramid food guidance system.
        J Nutr Educ Behav. 2006; 38: S78-S92
        • Marcoe K.
        • Juan W.
        • Yamini S.
        • Carlson A.
        • Britten P.
        Development of food group composites and nutrient profiles for the MyPyramid food guidance system.
        J Nutr Educ Behav. 2006; 38: S93-S107
        • Cleveland L.E.
        • Moshfegh A.J.
        • Albertson A.M.
        • Goldman J.D.
        Dietary intake of whole grains.
        J Am Coll Nutr. 2000; 19: 331S-338S
        • Harnack L.
        • Walters S.A.
        • Jacobs Jr, D.R.
        Dietary intake and food sources of whole grains among US children and adolescents: Data from the 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2003; 103: 1015-1019
        • Cook A.
        • Friday J.
        CNRG Table Set 3.0: Pyramid servings intakes in the United States, 1999-2002, 1 day.
        (US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service Web site) (Accessed September 25, 2007)
        • Cook A.
        • Friday J.
        CNRG Table Set 1.1: Pyramid servings intakes in the United States, 1994-96, 1998, 2 day.
        (US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service Web site) (Accessed September 25, 2007)
        • Guthrie J.F.
        • Morton J.F.
        Food sources of added sweeteners in the diets of Americans.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2000; 100: 43-51
        • Krebs-Smith S.M.
        Progress in improving diet to reduce cancer risk.
        Cancer. 1998; 83: 1425-1432
        • Cho E.
        • Chen W.Y.
        • Hunter D.J.
        • Stampfer M.J.
        • Colditz G.A.
        • Hankinson S.E.
        • Willett W.C.
        Red meat intake and risk of breast cancer among premenopausal women.
        Arch Intern Med. 2006; 166: 2253-2259
        • Fung T.T.
        • Schulze M.
        • Manson J.E.
        • Willett W.C.
        • Hu F.B.
        Dietary patterns, meat intake, and the risk of type 2 diabetes in women.
        Arch Intern Med. 2004; 164: 2235-2240
        • Key T.J.
        • Schatzkin A.
        • Willett W.C.
        • Allen N.E.
        • Spencer E.A.
        • Travis R.C.
        Diet, nutrition, and the prevention of cancer.
        Public Health Nutr. 2004; 7: 187-200
        • Kantor L.S.
        • Variyam J.N.
        • Allshouse J.E.
        • Putnam J.J.
        • Lin B.H.
        Choose a variety of grains daily, especially whole grains: A challenge for consumers.
        J Nutr. 2001; 131: 473S-486S
        • Baker E.A.
        • Schootman M.
        • Barnidge E.
        • Kelly C.
        The role of race and poverty in access to foods that enable individuals to adhere to dietary guidelines.
        Prev Chronic Dis. 2006; 3: A76
        • French S.A.
        • Story M.
        • Jeffery R.W.
        Environmental influences on eating and physical activity.
        Annu Rev Public Health. 2001; 22: 309-335
        • Egger G.
        • Swinburn B.
        An “ecological” approach to the obesity pandemic.
        BMJ. 1997; 315: 477-480
        • Seymour J.D.
        • Yaroch A.L.
        • Serdula M.
        • Blanck H.M.
        • Khan L.K.
        Impact of nutrition environmental interventions on point-of-purchase behavior in adults: A review.
        Prev Med. 2004; 39: S108-S136
        • Young L.R.
        • Nestle M.
        Expanding portion sizes in the US marketplace: Implications for nutrition counseling.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2003; 103: 231-234
        • Jeffery R.W.
        • Utter J.
        The changing environment and population obesity in the United States.
        Obes Res. 2003; 11: 12S-22S

      Biography

      J. L. Bachman is a graduate student, Department of Nutrition, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville.

      Biography

      J. Reedy and A. F. Subar are nutritionists and S. M. Krebs-Smith is chief, Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Branch, Applied Research Program, Division of Cancer Control and Population Science, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD.