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The Food Propensity Questionnaire: Concept, Development, and Validation for Use as a Covariate in a Model to Estimate Usual Food Intake

      Abstract

      Objective

      Twenty-four–hour recalls capture rich information on food consumption, but suffer from inadequately measuring usual intakes of episodically consumed foods. We explore using food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) data as covariates in a statistical model to estimate individual usual intakes of episodically consumed foods and their distributions and describe the development of the Food Propensity Questionnaire, an FFQ introduced in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

      Design

      We analyzed data from 965 adult participants in the Eating at America’s Table Study who completed four 24-hour recalls and an FFQ. We assessed whether or not increasing FFQ-reported frequency was associated with both number of 24-hour recall consumption days and amounts reported.

      Results

      For 52 of 56 food groups (93%), and 218 of 230 individual foods (95%), there were significant monotonically increasing relationships between FFQ frequency and 24-hour recall probability of consumption. For 47 of 56 food groups (84%) and 55 of 230 (24%) individual foods, there were significant positive correlations between FFQ frequencies and consumption-day mean intake.

      Conclusions

      We found strong and consistent relationships between reported FFQ frequency of food and food-group consumption and probability of consumption on 24-hour recalls. This supports the premise that frequency data may offer important covariate information in supplementing multiple recalls for estimating usual intake of food groups.
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      Biography

      A. F. Subar and S. M. Krebs-Smith are nutritionists, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD.

      Biography

      K. W. Dodd, V. Kipnis, and D. Midthune are mathematical statisticians, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD.

      Biography

      P. M. Guenther is a nutritionist, US Department of Agriculture Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion, Washington, DC.

      Biography

      M. McDowell is a health statistician, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, MD.

      Biography

      J. A. Tooze is an assistant professor, Section on Biostatistics, Department of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC.

      Biography

      L. S. Freedman is director, Biostatistics Unit, Gertner Institute for Epidemiology and Health Policy Research, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel.