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Consumption of Whole-Grain Cereals during Weight Loss: Effects on Dietary Quality, Dietary Fiber, Magnesium, Vitamin B-6, and Obesity

      Abstract

      Objective

      While various weight-management approaches produce weight loss, they may differ in dietary quality. We monitored changes in nutrient intakes in overweight and obese subjects on three different weight-management programs.

      Design

      Randomized clinical trial (pilot study) with two 12-week phases: phase 1, weekly counseling; phase 2, monitoring only.

      Subjects/setting

      One hundred eighty nonsmoking, sedentary overweight and obese adults began this outpatient study; 134 (body mass index [calculated as kg/m2]=30.9±2.4; age=42.3±1.2 years) were used in analyses.

      Intervention

      Twenty-four weeks of exercise only (control group), hypocaloric diet plus exercise, or hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereals plus exercise.

      Main Outcome Measures

      At weeks 0, 12, and 24, diet quality was assessed by 3-day food records and body weight was measured.

      Statistical Analyses Performed

      Three-way analysis of variance with repeated measures.

      Results

      The hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereals plus exercise decreased energy intake more than exercise only (P=0.032). By week 12, the hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereals plus exercise and the hypocaloric diet plus exercise decreased total fat more than exercise only, which was sustained in the hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereals plus exercise at 24 weeks (P<0.001). At weeks 12 and 24, the hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereals plus exercise reduced saturated fat intake more than exercise only. The hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereals plus exercise increased total fiber, insoluble fiber (both P<0.001), magnesium (P=0.004), and vitamin B-6 (P=0.002) intakes more than the hypocaloric diet plus exercise and exercise only. Calcium and vitamin E intakes were inadequate in all groups. Weight loss was similar in the hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereals plus exercise and the hypocaloric diet plus exercise.

      Conclusions

      Weight-reduction strategies may be associated with reduced intake of micronutrients, such as calcium and vitamin E. However, a hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereal is effective for improving or maintaining other aspects of dietary quality during weight loss.
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      Biography

      K. J. Melanson is assistant professor at the Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Rhode Island, Kingston.

      Biography

      T. J. Angelopoulos is director of Clinical Research, V. T. Nguyen is senior director of Nutrition and Metabolism, L. Zukley is associate director of Clinical Research, J. Lowndes is research associate, T. J. Dube is research associate, J. J. Fiutem is research associate, B. W. Yount is research associate, and J. M. Rippe is director and founder, Rippe Lifestyle Institute at Florida Hospital Celebration Health, Celebration, FL.

      Biography

      T. J. Angelopoulos is professor and J. Lowndes is research associate, Department of Health Professions, University of Central Florida, Orlando.

      Biography

      M. Martini is senior scientist, Kraft Foods, Inc, Glenview, IL.