Advertisement

Evidence-based strategies to build community food security

      Over the past decade, various entities within the United States (
      ,
      • Hora M.
      • Tick J.
      ,
      • Cohen B.
      ,
      • McCullum C.
      • Pelletier D.
      • Barr D.
      • Wilkins J.
      Use of a participatory planning process as a way to build community food security.
      ,
      • Hamm M.W.
      • Bellows A.C.
      Community food security and nutrition educators.
      ), Canada (

      Toronto Food Policy Council. Reducing Urban Hunger in Ontario: Policy Responses to Support the Transition from Food Charity to Local Food Security. Toronto Food Policy Council Discussion Paper Series, Discussion Paper No. 1, Toronto Food Policy Council, Toronto; 1994.

      ,

      Ontario Public Health Association Food Security Workgroup Position Paper. A Systemic Approach to Community Food Security: A Role for Public Health. Ontario, Canada: Ontario Public Health Association; 2002.

      ), and Europe (

      Toronto Food Policy Council. Reducing Urban Hunger in Ontario: Policy Responses to Support the Transition from Food Charity to Local Food Security. Toronto Food Policy Council Discussion Paper Series, Discussion Paper No. 1, Toronto Food Policy Council, Toronto; 1994.

      ,
      • Pederson R.M.
      ) have applied a food systems approach to build community food security. This approach to building community food security requires an understanding of how communities interact with resources in their social and physical environments over extended periods of time. It also uses strategies that address broad systemic issues affecting food availability, affordability, accessibility, and quality (
      ,
      • Hora M.
      • Tick J.
      ,
      • Cohen B.
      ,
      • McCullum C.
      • Pelletier D.
      • Barr D.
      • Wilkins J.
      Use of a participatory planning process as a way to build community food security.
      ,
      • Hamm M.W.
      • Bellows A.C.
      Community food security and nutrition educators.
      ,

      Toronto Food Policy Council. Reducing Urban Hunger in Ontario: Policy Responses to Support the Transition from Food Charity to Local Food Security. Toronto Food Policy Council Discussion Paper Series, Discussion Paper No. 1, Toronto Food Policy Council, Toronto; 1994.

      ,

      Ontario Public Health Association Food Security Workgroup Position Paper. A Systemic Approach to Community Food Security: A Role for Public Health. Ontario, Canada: Ontario Public Health Association; 2002.

      ,
      • Pederson R.M.
      ,
      • Brown K.H.
      • Carter A.
      ,
      • MacRae R.J.
      • Hill S.B.
      • Henning J.
      • Bentley A.J.
      Policies, programs, and regulations to support transition to sustainable agriculture in Canada.
      ). The purpose of this article is to provide dietetics professionals with a three-stage continuum of evidence-based strategies and activities that applies a food systems approach to building community food security.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

      1. Winne M. Joseph H. Fisher A. Community Food Security A Guide to Concept, Design and Implementation. Community Food Security Coalition, Venice, CA2000
        • Hora M.
        • Tick J.
        From Farm to Table. Capital Area Food Bank, Washington, DC2001
        • Cohen B.
        Community Food Security Assessment Toolkit. United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Washington, DC2002 (E-FAN-02-013; July)
        • McCullum C.
        • Pelletier D.
        • Barr D.
        • Wilkins J.
        Use of a participatory planning process as a way to build community food security.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2002; 102: 962-967
        • Hamm M.W.
        • Bellows A.C.
        Community food security and nutrition educators.
        J Nutr Educ Behav. 2003; 35: 37-43
      2. Toronto Food Policy Council. Reducing Urban Hunger in Ontario: Policy Responses to Support the Transition from Food Charity to Local Food Security. Toronto Food Policy Council Discussion Paper Series, Discussion Paper No. 1, Toronto Food Policy Council, Toronto; 1994.

      3. Ontario Public Health Association Food Security Workgroup Position Paper. A Systemic Approach to Community Food Security: A Role for Public Health. Ontario, Canada: Ontario Public Health Association; 2002.

        • Pederson R.M.
        Urban Food and Nutrition Security. World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark2001
        • Brown K.H.
        • Carter A.
        Urban Agriculture and Community Food Security in the United States. Community Food Security Coalition, Venice, CA2002 (1–30)
        • MacRae R.J.
        • Hill S.B.
        • Henning J.
        • Bentley A.J.
        Policies, programs, and regulations to support transition to sustainable agriculture in Canada.
        Am J Altern Agriculture. 1990; 5: 76-92
      4. Dahlberg K. What Are Food Systems? Local and Regional Food Systems: A Key to Healthy Cities. Paper presented at the International Healthy Cities Conference, December 1993; San Francisco, CA. Available at: http://homepages.wmich.edu/∼dahlberg/F14.pdf. Accessed March 3, 2004.

      5. Position of the American Dietetic Association.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2003; 103: 1046-1057
        • Wilkins J.
        Seasonal and local diets.
        Res Rural Sociol Dev. 1995; 6: 150-152
        • Feenstra G.
        Local food systems and sustainable communities.
        Am J Altern Agriculture. 1997; 12: 26-28
        • Peters J.
        Community food systems.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 1997; 97: 955-956
      6. Holben DH, Myles W. Food insecurity in the United States. Its effect on our patients. Am Fam Physician. March 1, 2004; Available at: http://www.aafp.org/afp/20040301/editorials.html#3. Accessed March 23, 2004.

        • Tarasuk V.S.
        • Beaton G.H.
        Women’s dietary intakes in the context of household food insecurity.
        J Nutr. 1999; 129: 672-679
        • Akobundu U.O.
        • Cohen N.L.
        • Laus M.J.
        • Schulte M.J.
        • Soussloff M.N.
        Vitamins A and C, calcium, fruit, and dairy products are limited in food pantries.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2004; 104: 811-813
        • Morland K.
        • Wing S.
        • Diez Roux A.
        • Poole C.
        Neighborhood characteristics associated with the location of food stores and food service places.
        Am J Prev Med. 2002; 22: 23-29
        • Crixell S.
        • Friedman B.J.
        Food insecurity in the barrio.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2003; 103: A-45
        • Storper B.
        Moving toward healthful sustainable diets.
        Nutr Today. 2003; 38: 57-59
        • Walsh J.
        • de Beaufort N.
        Dietitians and local farmers.
        Hunger and Environmental Nutrition Dietetic Practice Group Newsletter. 2003; (Spring): 1-3
      7. Position of the American Dietetic Association.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2001; 101: 1221-1227
        • Reganold J.P.
        • Glover J.D.
        • Andrews P.K.
        • Hinman H.R.
        Sustainability of three apple production systems.
        Nature. 2001; 410: 926-930
        • Greene C.
        • Kremen A.
        US Organic Farming in 2000–2001. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Resource Economics Division, Washington, DC2003 (Agriculture Bulletin No. 780.)
        • Garry V.F.
        • Harkins M.E.
        • Erickson L.L.
        • Long-Simpson L.K.
        • Holland S.E.
        • Burroughs B.L.
        Birth defects, season of conception, and sex of children born to pesticide applicators living in the Red River Valley of Minnesota, USA.
        Environ Health Perspect. 2002; 110: 441-449
        • Alavanja M.C.R.
        • Samanic C.
        • Dosemeci M.
        • Lubin J.
        • Tarone R.
        • Lynch C.F.
        • Knott C.
        • Thomas K.
        • Hoppin J.A.
        • Barker J.
        • Coble J.
        • Sandler D.P.
        • Blair A.
        Use of agricultural pesticides and prostate cancer risk in the agricultural health study cohort.
        Am J Epidemiol. 2003; 157: 800-814
        • Calvert G.M.
        • Mehler L.N.
        • Rosales R.
        • Baum L.
        • Thomsen C.
        • Male D.
        • Shafey O.
        • Das R.
        • Lackovic M.
        • Arvizu E.
        Acute pesticide-related illnesses among working youths, 1988–1999.
        Am J Public Health. 2003; 93: 605-610
        • Harmon A.H.
        Farm to School. National Farm to School Program, Occidental College, Urban & Environmental Policy Institute, Center for Food and Justice, Los Angeles, CA2003
      8. Lepp K. Buy Local! Buy Fresh! Map Evaluation. Region of Waterloo Public Health, Ontario, Canada, 2002. Available at: [email protected]. Accessed March 15, 2004.

      9. B.C. Foods—A Rainbow of Choices. British Columbia Ministry of Health, British Columbia Dairy Foundation, and Vancouver Health Department, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada1992
        • Hamilton N.D.
        Putting a face on our food.
        Drake J Agricultural Law. 2002; 7: 407-443
        • Webster J.
        • Johnson V.
        Reaching the Parts … Community Mapping. The Alliance for Better Food and Farming, and Oxfam UK Poverty Programme, London, UK2000
        • United Nations Development Programme
        World Urbanization Prospects. United Nations Development Programme, New York, NY1999
        • Chaplowe S.C.
        Sustainable prospects in urban agriculture.
        in: Madden J.P. Chaplowe S.G. For All Generations Making World Agriculture More Sustainable. OM Publishing, Glendale, CA1997: 70-100
        • Horrigan L.
        • Lawrence R.S.
        • Walker P.
        How sustainable agriculture can address the environmental and human health harms of industrial agriculture.
        Environ Health Perspect. 2002; 110: 445-456
        • Murphy T.
        • Valenzuela R.E.
        • Tsagarakis I.
        Partnering community supported agriculture and emergency food programs.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2002; 102: A44
      10. University of Massachusetts Extension. Community Supported Agriculture and How Does it Work? Amherst, Mass.: University of Massachusetts Extension; 1999. Available at: http://www.umass.edu/umext/csa/about.html. Accessed January 14, 2003.

      11. Ingram J, Kalenda KL. Building strong and vibrant communities one plant at a time. Hunger and Environmental Nutrition Dietetic Practice Group Newsletter. Spring 2003:5.

        • Klotz J.C.V.
        • Steiner J.
        Improving and Facilitating a Farmers Market in a Low Income Urban Neighborhood. US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service, Washington, DC2001
        • Conrey E.J.
        • Frongillo E.A.
        • Dollahite J.S.
        • Griffin M.R.
        Integrated program enhancements increased utilization of a farmers’ market nutrition program.
        J Nutr. 2003; 133: 1841-1844
        • Festing H.
        Farmers’ Markets. An American Success Story. Ecologic Books, Bath, UK1999
        • Hilchey D.
        • Lyson T.
        • Gillespie G.
        Farmers’ Markets and Rural Economic Development. Farming Alternatives Program, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY1995
        • United States Department of Agriculture
        WIC Farmers Market Nutrition Program.
        Consolidated Regulations. 1996; 11: 304-316
      12. United States Department of Agriculture. Senior Farmers Market Nutrition Program. 2003. Available at: http://www.fns.usda.gov/wic/SeniorFMNP/SFMNPFY03.htm. Accessed March 5, 2004.

        • Anderson J.V.
        • Bybee D.I.
        • Brown R.M.
        • McLean D.F.
        • Garcia E.M.
        • Breer M.L.
        • Schillo B.A.
        5 A Day fruit and vegetable intervention improves consumption in a low-income population.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2001; 101: 195-202
        • Kunkel M.E.
        • Luccia B.
        • Moore A.C.
        Evaluation of the South Carolina Seniors Farmers’ Market Nutrition Education Program.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2003; 103: 880-883
        • Swartz S.H.
        • Ranum O.J.
        • Phillips C.K.
        • Cavanaugh J.J.
        • Bennett A.E.
        Urban gardening yields benefits for low-income families.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2003; 103: A48
        • Twiss J.
        • Dickinson J.
        • Duma S.
        • Kleinman T.
        • Paulsen H.
        • Rilveria L.
        Community gardens.
        Am J Public Health. 2003; 93: 1435-1438
        • Armstrong D.
        A survey of community gardens in upstate New York.
        Health and Place. 2000; 6: 319-327
        • Sanger K.
        • Zenz L.
        Farm-to-Cafeteria Connections. Washington State Department of Agriculture, Olympia, WA2004
        • Altieri M.A.
        Agroecology.
        Agriculture Ecosystems Environ. 2002; 93: 1-24
      13. World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe and The Netherlands WHO Center for Urban Health. Urban and Peri-Urban Food and Nutrition Action Plan, 2001. World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark2001
      14. Common Ground. Mapping Food Matters: A Resource on Place-Based Food System Mapping. Common Ground and Victoria Chapter of Oxfam Canada, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada2001
      15. Drake University’s Agricultural Law Center, Des Moines, Iowa. State and Local Food Policy Council Project Partners. Available at: http://www.statefoodpolicy.org/partnerships.htm. Accessed February 12, 2004.

      16. Weaving the Food Web: Community Food Security in California. Venice, CA: Community Food Security Coalition; 2002. Available at: http://www.foodsecurity.org. Accessed December 10, 2004.

      17. City of Toronto. Public Health: Food Policy Council. Available at: http://www.toronto.ca/health/tfpc_index.htm. Accessed May 7, 2004.

      18. Iowa Food Policy Council: 2003–2004. Available at: http://www.iowafoodpolicy.org/ifpcmembers.htm. Accessed April 5, 2004.

      19. Portland-Multnomah Food Policy Council. Food Policy Recommendations. Portland-Multnomah Food Policy Council. Multnomah County, City of Portland, Office of Sustainable Development, Portland, OR; 2003.

        • McCullum C.
        • Pelletier D.
        • Barr D.
        • Wilkins J.
        • Habicht J.P.
        Mechanisms of power within a community-based food security planning process.
        Health Educ Behav. 2004; 31: 206-222
        • Ringen K.
        Norwegian food and nutritional policy.
        Am J Public Health. 1977; 67: 550-551
        • Milio N.
        An Analysis of the Implementation of Norwegian Nutrition Policy, 1981–87. Report Prepared for the World Health Organization 1990 Conference on Food and Nutrition Policy. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill1988

      Biography

      C. McCullum is an assistant professor of health promotion and behavior sciences, University of Texas, School of Public Health, Houston.

      Biography

      E. Desjardins is a community nutritionist, Region of Waterloo Public Health, Ontario, Canada.

      Biography

      V. I. Kraak is a nutrition consultant, Washington, DC.

      Biography

      P. Ladipo is a breastfeeding project coordinator, Cornell University, Division of Nutritional Sciences, Ithaca, NY.

      Biography

      H. Costello is a food security coordinator, University of New Hampshire, Concord.