Research Research and Professional Brief| Volume 111, ISSUE 12, P1898-1903, December 2011

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Associations between Snacking and Weight Loss and Nutrient Intake among Postmenopausal Overweight to Obese Women in a Dietary Weight-Loss Intervention


      Snacking may play a role in weight control. The associations of timing and frequency of snacking with observed weight change and nutrient intake were assessed in an ancillary study to a 12-month randomized controlled trial in Seattle, WA. Overweight-to-obese postmenopausal women (n=123) enrolled in the two dietary weight-loss arms from 2007 to 2008 with complete data at 12 months were included in these analyses. Generalized linear models were used to test the associations between snacking and weight loss (percent) and nutrient intake at the 12-month time point. Participants were, on average, 58 years old and mainly non-Hispanic white (84%). Ninety-seven percent reported one or more snacks per day. Weight loss (percent) was significantly lower among mid-morning (10:30 am to 11:29 am) snackers (7.0%, 95% confidence interval: 4.3 to 9.7) compared to non–mid-morning snackers (11.4%, 95% confidence interval: 10.2 to 12.6; P=0.005). A higher proportion of mid-morning snackers reported more than one snack per day (95.7%), compared to afternoon (82.8%) and evening (80.6%) snackers, although differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Women who reported two or more snacks per day vs one or no snacks per day had higher fiber intake (P=0.027). Afternoon snackers had higher fruit and vegetable intake compared to non–afternoon-snackers (P=0.035). These results suggest that snack meals can be a source for additional fruits, vegetables, and fiber-rich foods; however, snacking patterns might also reflect unhealthy eating habits and impede weight-loss progress. Future dietary weight-loss interventions should evaluate the effects of timing, frequency, and quality of snacks on weight loss.
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      A. Kong is a postdoctoral research associate, Cancer Education and Career Development Program, Institute for Health Research and Policy, University of Illinois at Chicago


      S. A. A. Beresford is a professor, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA


      C. M. Alfano is program director, Office of Cancer Survivorship, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD


      K. E. Foster-Schubert is assistant professor of medicine, University of Washington, VA Puget Sound Health Care, Seattle, WA


      M. L. Neuhouser is an associate member, Cancer Prevention Program, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA


      C. Duggan is senior staff scientist, Epidemiology Program, Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA


      C.-Y. Wang is a member, Biostatistics and Biomathematics Program, Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA


      L. Xiao is a statistical research associate, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA


      C. E. Bain is study coordinator, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA


      A. McTiernan is director, Prevention Center and member, Epidemiology Program, Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA


      D. B. Johnson is an associate professor, Nutritional Sciences and associate director, Center for Public Health Nutrition, University of Washington, Seattle, WA

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      • Erratum
        Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and DieteticsVol. 114Issue 6
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          The Research and Professional Brief article, “Associations between Snacking and Weight Loss and Nutrient Intake among Postmenopausal Overweight to Obese Women in a Dietary Weight-Loss Intervention,” by Kong and colleagues that appeared in the December 2011 issue of the Journal (pp 1898-1903) contains an error on page 1902. In Table 2, the first category under “Total snacking frequency” is incorrectly listed as “≥1 Snacks/day.” The category should be correctly listed as “≤1 Snacks/day.”
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