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Glycemic index of potatoes commonly consumed in North America

      Abstract

      Objective

      To determine the effect of variety and cooking method on glycemic response and glycemic index of common North American potatoes.

      Design

      Study 1: subjects consumed 200 g Russet or white potatoes that were either (a) precooked, refrigerated, and reheated (precooked) or (b) cooked and consumed immediately (day-cooked). Incremental area under the curve was determined. Study 2: subjects consumed 50 g carbohydrate portions of white bread or potatoes (six different varieties and two different cooking methods). Glycemic index values were calculated. In both studies meals were consumed after a 10- to 12-hour overnight fast and finger-prick capillary-blood glucose was measured before and at intervals for 2 hours after consumption.

      Subjects

      The study groups were as follows: Study 1 comprised four men and six women, aged 20 to 44 and Study 2 comprised 11 men and one woman, aged 18 to 50.

      Statistical analyses

      Repeated measures analysis of variance with Newman-Kuels to protect for multiple comparisons (criterion of significance two-tailed P<.05).

      Results

      Study 1: Precooked Russet potatoes elicited lower area under the curve than day-cooked (P<.05), while precooking had no effect on boiled white potatoes. Study 2: The glycemic index values of potatoes varied significantly, depending on the variety and cooking method used (P=.003) ranging from intermediate (boiled red potatoes consumed cold: 56) to moderately high (roasted California white potatoes: 72; baked US Russet potatoes: 77) to high (instant mashed potatoes: 88; boiled red potatoes: 89).

      Conclusions

      The glycemic index of potatoes is influenced by variety and method of cooking and US Russet potatoes have only a moderately high glycemic index. Individuals who wish to minimize dietary glycemic index can be advised to precook potatoes and consume them cold or reheated.
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      Biography

      G. Fernandes is a dental student at the University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

      Biography

      Amogh Velangi is a dental student at New York University, New York.

      Biography

      Thomas Wolever is a professor, Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, and President of Glycaemic Index Testing, Inc, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.