Position of the American dietetic association: Vegetarian diets

      A considerable body of scientific data suggests positive relationships between vegetarian diets and risk reduction for several chronic degenerative diseases and conditions, including obesity, coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and some types of cancer.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Burr ML
        • Butland BK
        Heart disease in British vegetarians.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 1988; 48: 830-832
        • Fraser GE
        Determinants of ischemic heart disease in Seventh-Day Adventists: a review.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 1988; 48: 833-836
        • Ornish D
        • Brown S
        • Scherwitz L
        • Billings J
        • Armstrong W
        • Ports T
        • McLanahan S
        • Kirkeeide R
        • Brand R
        • Gould KL
        Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease?.
        Lancet. 1990; 336: 129-133
        • Kestin M
        • Rouse I
        • Correll R
        • Nestel P
        Cardiovascular disease risk factors in free-living men: comparison of two prudent diets, one based on lactoovovegetarianism and the other allowing lean meat.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 1989; 50: 280-287
        • Beilin LJ
        • Rouse IL
        • Armstrong BK
        • Margetts BM
        • Vandongen R
        Vegetarian diet and blood pressure levels: incidental or causal association?.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 1988; 48: 806-810
        • Phillips R
        • Snowdon D
        Association of meat and coffee use with cancers of the large bowel, breast, and prostate among Seventh-Day Adventists: preliminary results.
        Cancer Res. 1983; 45 (suppl): 2403-2408
        • Turjiman N
        • Goodman GT
        • Jaeger B
        • Nair PP
        Diet, nutrition intake and metabolism in populations at high and low risk for colon cancer: metabolism of bile acids.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 1984; 4: 937
        • Colditz G
        • Stampfer M
        • Willet W
        Diet and lung cancer: a review of the epidemiological evidence in humans.
        Arch Intern Med. 1987; 147: 157
        • Chen J
        • Campbell TC
        • Li J
        • Peto R
        Diet, Life-style and Mortality in China. A study of the characteristics of 65 Countries.
        Oxford University Press, Cornell University Press, and the China People's Medical Publishing House, 1990
        • Bergan JC
        • Brown PT
        Nutritional status of “new” vegetarians.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 1980; 76: 151-155
        • Nieman DC
        • Underwood BC
        • Sherman KM
        • Arabatzis K
        • Barbosa JC
        • Johnson M
        • Shultz TD
        Dietary status of Seventh-Day Adventist vegetarian and non-vegetarian elderly women.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 1989; 89: 1763-1769
        • Young VR
        Soy protein in relation to human protein and amino acid nutrition.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 1991; 91: 828-835
        • Food and Nutrition Board
        Recommended Dietary Allowances.
        10th ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC1989
        • Herbert V
        Vitamin B-12: plant sources, requirements, assay.
        in: Mutch PB Johnston PK First International Congress on Vegetarian Nutrition. 5th ed. Am J Clin Nutr. 48. 1988: 452
        • Heaney R
        • Weaver C
        Calcium absorption from kale.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 1990; 51: 656
        • Zemel M
        Calcium utilization: effect of varying level and source of dietary protein.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 1988; 48: 880
        • Marsh A
        • Sanchez T
        • Michelsen O
        • Chaffee F
        • Fagal S
        Vegetarian lifestyle and bone mineral density.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 1988; 48: 837-841
        • Hambige K
        • Casey C
        • Krebs N
        in: 5th ed. Trace Elements in Human and Animal Nutrition. Vol. 2. Academic Press, Orlando, Fla1986
        • Sabate J
        • Lindsted K
        • Harris R
        • Sanchez A
        Attained height of lactoovo vegetarian children and adolescents.
        Eur J Clin Nutr. 1991; 45: 51-58
        • O'Connell J
        • Dibley M
        • Sierra J
        • Wallace B
        • Marks J
        • Yip R
        Growth of vegetarian children: the Farm study.
        Pediatrics. 1989; 84: 475-480
        • Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine
        Nutrition During Lactation.
        National Academy Press, Washington, DC1991
        • Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine
        Nutrition During Pregnancy.
        National Academy Press, Washington, DC1991
      1. Eating Well—The Vegetarian Way. American Dietetic Association, Chicago, Ill1992
      2. Nutrition and Your Health: Dietary Guidelines for Americans. 3rd ed. US Dept of Agriculture and US Dept of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC1990

      Linked Article